Powerpoint Slides for Group Dynamics
Powerpoint Slides for each Chapter in Group Dynamics (6th ed)
The tendency to join with others in groups is perhaps the single most important characteristic of humans, and the processes that unfold within these groups leave an indelible imprint on their members and on society. Group dynamics are the influential processes that take place in groups as well as the discipline devoted to the scientific analysis of those dynamics.
How do researchers test their theories and hypotheses about groups and their dynamics? This lecture divides the scientific enterprise into three components: a) measuring group and individual-level processes; b) testing hypotheses in case studies, experimental, and nonexperimental designs; and c) developing theories that explain group processes.
Philosophers and social scientists have long pondered “the master problem” of social life: What is the connection between the individual and society, including groups, organizations, and communities? This chapter suggests humans have a strong need to be part of social groups, and that their identities are grounded in their individual qualities and in their group memberships.
Groups spring from many sources and serve many purposes, but this lecture examines three sets of factors that can create a group where none existed before: the personal qualities of the people who are seeking membership, the nature of the situation that prompts people to affiliate with one another, and the feelings of liking that draw members to each other.
Groups, like all living things, develop over time. The group may begin as a collection of strangers, but uncertainty gives way to cohesion as members become bound to their group by strong social forces. Cohesion, though, is not just a sense of group unity, but a multifaceted process that influences a wide range of interpersonal and group processes. This chapter reviews both the causes and consequences of group cohesion and the development of cohesion over time.
Personality cannot be seen, but it nonetheless shapes individual’s actions and reactions. Similarly, group processes are shaped by unobservable, but influential group structures. Just as the structure of personality can be described in a variety of ways, so have different theorists stressed diverse structural qualities in their analyses of groups. This lecture emphasizes norms, roles, and intermember relations (status, attraction, and communication).
An interpersonal undercurrent flows beneath the surface of most groups that pushes group members together, toward greater consensus, uniformity, homogeneity, or conformity. But other forces push members in divergent directions; they promote dissension, uniqueness, heterogeneity, and independence. Here we examine both processes—conformity and nonconformity—and uses these concepts to explore how people act when they are members of juries.
People influence other people: this assumption is the cornerstone of group dynamics. But in some cases this influence can be extraordinarily strong. Rather than subtly influencing members’ opinions and choices, powerful people and groups can change members in dramatic ways. We will use the concept of power to explore obedience to authority, bases of power, and the metamorphic effects of power.
What is leadership? Is it power over other people? Is it a special talent that the lucky possess and that the unlucky can never hope to gain? Why do some become leaders, and others followers? And can we distill leadership down to a set of maxims? This lecture examines these questions by defining leadership, by examining the process of leadership emergence, and by reviewing theories of leadership effectiveness.
People often answer the question “How can we get the job done?” with “Let’s form a group.” Here we examine the productivity of task-focused groups by reviewing four classic “social” literatures on the subject: social facilitation, social loafing (the Ringelmann effect), social combination (Steiner’s task theory), and social creativity (brainstorming).
When obstacles prevent people from achieving their goals, they engage in problem-solving to identify solutions. In many cases they perform these cognitive activities as isolated individuals, but when the information to be processed is considerable or the potential consequences monumental, they do this cognitive work in groups. Here we examine the processes that facilitate and undermine collective decision making, including groupthink.
An understanding of teams requires an understanding of groups, in general: How they form, their basic structures, their development over time, and the social influence processes that shape members’ behaviors. Teams do, however, possess some unique characteristics, given the high degree of coordination among members and their focus on goals. This chapter examines those characteristics, using the traditional input-process-output system model as a guide.
Group members do not always get along well with one another. Even in the most serene group one member may irritate another; with little warning the group’s atmosphere may transform from one of tranquility to one of hostility. Here we examine conflict by considering inputs (roots of conflict), processes (conflict escalation), and outputs (ways of managing conflict).
Hate, as Gordon Allport explained in The Nature of Prejudice, is usually a group-level emotion. People rarely hate specific people, yet they often hate entire groups. This lecture considers the factors that set the stage for conflict between groups, changes that conflict bring to groups, and ways to resolve conflicts.
Groups exist in any number of distinct physical locations: from classrooms, museums, factories and boardrooms to coal mines, battlefields, and even space capsules. The physical qualities of these places—temperature, type of lighting, furniture arrangements, noise—substantially influence group dynamics, but so do the social features of the setting. This lecture reviews these processes, focusing on four contexts: environmental settings, behavior settings, interpersonal settings (small-group ecology), and territorial settings.
The use of groups as agents of change dates back many years, but it was Lewin who stated the basic “law” of group therapy in its most simple form: “It is usually easier to change individuals formed into a group than to change any one of them separately” (1951, p. 228). This lecture reviews these applications, with a focus on therapeutic and support groups.
The science of group dynamics is based on one core assumption: People act collectively. Much of this collective action occurs in relatively small groups, but people sometimes join much larger collectives, including crowds, mobs, audiences, fads, crazes, demonstrations, strikes, and social movements. This lecture examines these larger groups, but first describes such groups before reviewing classic and contemporary accounts of their dynamics.